Central Desktop vs G Suite

Central Desktop
Central Desktop enables to store and share files, hold discussions, capture feedback and approvals, keep decentralized internal and external team members up-to-date, and eliminate the need for disparate tools, such as FTP sites, file-sending sites, shared drives and extranets. Never dig through your inbox again looking for "lost" emails; all project information is consolidated in one location.
G Suite
Get business email, video conferencing, and cloud storage from Google. All you need to do your best work, together in one package that works seamlessly from your computer, phone or tablet. If you are looking for self-hosted G Suite alternatives pay attention to Microsoft Office and ONLYOFFICE.
Face to face in the news:

2010 - Google added 60 more services to Google Apps to compete with Central Desktop

As promised, Google has added the consumer services (that were previously only available for individual users) to the Google Apps suite. Last week they added Google Voice (for US and Canada users only) and today - allowed to add any of 60 Google services. Account administrator can select which services to add and which - not. Moreover, the administrator can define which users or groups will have access to each service. For example, for marketing staff he can add Adwords (for advertising), Google Analytics (for monitoring site stats), Blogger and YouTube (for corporate blog and video blog), and for IT professionals - Google App Engine (for developing business applications). Also potentially useful for business may be Google Reader (as an enterprise RSS reader) and Picasa (for intranet galleries). The opportunity to add new services is also available in the free version of Google Apps.

2009 - How to develop custom applications for Google Apps? to strike back at Central Desktop

Google Apps Marketplace

A year ago Google opened Google Solutions Marketplace - online store for third-party applications that can be added to Google Apps account. (Something similar to Salesforce AppExchange). But unlike Salesforce, Google doesn't promote this marketplace. Even, there is no link to applications catalog in the Google Apps control panel. Nevertheless, already about two hundreds different applications have been submitted to the marketplace. They share the Google Apps login and integrate with native apps (like Docs or Calendar) by means of APIs. For example, you can create a project management system and link its internal tasks to documents in Google Docs or contacts in Google Contacts.

Google Spreadsheets
Besides recently Google officially introduced Google Apps Script, that is available now in the Enterprise version. Google Apps Script - is a macros language, that is used to automate different functions in Google Apps: i.e. calculating cell values in Google Spreadsheets, creating Google Calendar appointments or sending e-mail. Unlike Microsoft's Visual Basic, Google Script is based on JavaScript, that is familiar to most web-developers. But in contrast to JavaScript, Google script is executed on server (not on local machine). On the one hand this assures high security level, but on the other hand - you can connect the script with your in-house applications. The script editor is available in Google Spreadsheets -> Tools menu.